Py++ package

Py++ is an object-oriented framework for creating a code generator for Boost.Python library and ctypes package.

Py++ uses few different programming paradigms to help you to expose C++ declarations to Python. This code generator will not stand on your way. It will guide you through the whole process. It will raise warnings in the case you are doing something wrong with a link to the explanation. And the most important it will save your time - you will not have to update code generator script every time source code is changed.

Code generation process

Code generation process, using Py++ consists from few steps. The following paragraphs will tell you more about every step.

“read declarations”

Py++ does not reinvent the wheel. It uses GCC C++ compiler to parse C++ source files. To be more precise, the tool chain looks like this:

  1. source code is passed to GCC-XML
  2. GCC-XML passes it to GCC C++ compiler
  3. GCC-XML generates an XML description of a C++ program from GCC’s internal representation.
  4. Py++ uses pygccxml package to read GCC-XML generated file.

The bottom line - you can be sure, that all your declarations are read correctly.

“build module”

Only very small and simple projects could be exported as is. Most of the projects still require human invocation. Basically there are 2 questions that you should answer:

  1. which declarations should be exported
  2. how this specific declaration should be exported or, if I change a little a question, what code should be written in order I get access from Python to that functionality

Of course, Py++ cannot answer those question, but it provides maximum help to you.

How can Py++ help you with first question? Py++ provides very powerful and simple query interface. For example in one line of code you can select all free functions that have two arguments, where the first argument has type int & and the type of the second argument is any:

mb = module_builder_t( ... ) #module_builder_t is the main class that
                             #will help you with code generation process
mb.free_functions( arg_types=[ 'int &', None ] )

Another example - the developer wants to exclude all protected functions from being exported:

mb = module_builder_t( ... )
mb.calldefs( access_type_matcher_t( 'protected' ) ).exclude()

The developer can create custom criteria, for example exclude all declarations with ‘impl’ ( implementation ) string within the name.

mb = module_builder_t( ... )
mb.decls( lambda decl: 'impl' in decl.name ).exclude()

Note the way the queries were built. You can think about those queries as the rules, which will continue to work even after exported C++ code was changed. It means that you don’t have to change code generator source code every time.

So far, so good what about second question? Well, by default Py++ generates a code that will satisfy almost all developers. Py++ could be configured in many ways to satisfy your needs. But sometimes this is still not enough. There are use cases when you need full control over generated code. One of the biggest problems, with code generators in general, is modifying generated code and preserving changes. How many code generators did you use or know, that allow you to put your code anywhere or to reorder generated code as you wish? Py++ allows you to do that.

Py++ introduces new concept: code creator and code creators tree. You can think about code creators tree as some kind of AST. The only difference is that code creators tree provides more specific functionality. For example include_t code creator is responsible to create C++ include directive code. You have full control over code creators tree, before it is written to disc. Here you can find UML diagram of almost all code creators: class diagram.

At the end of this step you have code creators tree, which is ready to be written to disc.

“write code to files”

During this step Py++ reads the code creators tree and writes the code to a disc. The code generation process result should not be different from the one, which would be achieved by human. For small project writing all code into single file is good approach, for big ones the code should be splitted into multiple files. Py++ implements both strategies.

Features list

  • Py++ supports almost all features found in Boost.Python library

  • Using Py++ you can develop few extension modules simultaneously, especially when they share the code.

  • Py++ generates code, which will help you:
    • to understand compiler generated error messages
    • to minimize project built time
  • Py++ has few modes of writing code into files: * single file * multiple files * fixed set of multiple files * multiple files, where single class code is split to few files

  • You have full control over generated code. Your code could be inserted almost anywhere.

  • Your license is written at the top of every generated file

  • Py++ will check the “completeness” of the bindings. It will check for you that the exposed declarations don’t have references to unexposed ones.

  • Py++ provides enough functionality to extract source code documentation and write it as Python documentation string

  • Py++ provides simple and powerful framework to create a wrapper for functions, which could not be exposed as is to Python.

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